The first image of a black hole of the galaxy Messier or M87 was taken by Event Horizon Telescope on 4/10/19. It is 6.5 billion times more massive than the Sun and is millions of light years away. Gas surrounds the hole, and beyond that light cannot escape. how-scientists-captured-the-first-image-of-a-black-hole/

Physicists have been attempting for approximately fifty years to understand black holes. Stephen Hawking took a stab at it and theorized the black holes have a zero temperature; therefore, they cannot absorb or emit energy. This finding brought the black holes into the field of thermodynamics. Thermodynamics deals with relations between heat and all forms of energy processes that convert heat energy into other forms of energy; such as, mechanical, electrical, and chemical. However, Hawking’s findings deepened the problem because he could not convert energy back to its original form. The outgoing radiation emerged from just outside the boundary of the black hole and carried no information about the interior. If the process would be reversed and fed the energy back into the black hole, the particles that had fallen in would not pop out, and there would be just more heat. The original particles would still be there but trapped inside the hole because, as the hole emits radiation, it shrinks, and according to analysis, it ultimately disappears.

This problem is referred to as “information paradox” because the black hole destroys the information about the particles that are falling in. If black hole physics is really reversible, something must carry information back out. The thermodynamics of black holes casts further doubt on picturing space as a simple mosaic. The black hole may look 3 dimensional, but it behaves as if it were 2 dimensional according to the number of molecules that are being produced. The number of molecules that the hole is made up of must be proportional “not to its volume but to its surface”. The relations are dictated by Quantum Theory or other principles, and the arrangements in space follow reality corrections between two or more things. In other words, the relationism theory holds that space arises from a certain pattern of the reality of connections between two or more things or quantities among objects. Using this viewpoint, space is a jigsaw puzzle. Beginning with a big pile of pieces, observe how they connect and place them accordingly. If two pieces have similar properties, such as color, they are likely to be nearby. If they strongly differ in properties, they can, for a time, be put far apart. 

At the very edge of the hole, matter is not so compressed, gravity is weaker and by all rights, the known laws of physics should still hold. However, THEY DO NOT!. The black hole is separated by a “point of no return”…matter that falls in cannot get back out. The descent is irreversible and is a problem because all known laws of fundamental physics, including those of quantum mechanics as generally understood, are reversible. In principle, it should be able to reverse the motion of all the particles and recover what was there before.

A supposition exists that black holes allow matter to flow through into other universes which, therefore, allows the universes to be perfectly balanced at all times. When one universe experiences a change in matter, entanglement is never experienced because matter travels through to the other side, or universe. But, this theory needs to be proven, hence Hawking’s dilemma.

SUPERSTRING THEORYIf the Superstring or String Theory (see blogs of 10/16/15 and 11/14/15) applies the holographic principle, or uses a 3 dimensional projected image, not just to black holes but also to the universe at large. it shall provide a recipe for how to create space or at least to keep the universe balanced. When a 2 dimensional space could be threaded by areas that, when structured in the right way, generate an additional dimension of space, the original 2 dimensional space would serve as the boundary of a more expansive realm, known as the”bulk” space. Entanglement is what knits the”bulk” space into a connecting whole. Dimensions are constantly connecting or may even be connecting perhaps into 10 or more dimensions.

Be Soft. Do not let the world make you hard, do not let the pain make you hate, do not let the bitterness steal your sweetness.


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