Spacetime is any mathematical model that fuses 3 dimensions of space and the 4 dimensions of time into a single dimensional continuum. A continuum is a continuous sequence in which adjacent elements are not clearly different from each other although the extremes are quite unmistakable. All the Universal fundamental forces and elementary particles are a pair of physical and virtual (not clearly defined) fields which combine into one physical field. Space requires time…both are interdependent. To go from A to B, a particle, or a quantum field that rises and falls, must experience time. Space is never empty. There is always quantum rising and falling that need to experience time.  Spacetime are two sides of the same coin like the Electromagnetic Field where both forces, positive and negative, give rise to each other and are an unchanging woven property of the Universe. Now and the future are all energy and part of Spacetime as represented by the above cone.

Max Planck formulated his Quantum Theory in 1900. Quantum is Latin, and it means “amount” In modern sciences, it means the smallest unit of any property such as energy or matter on an atomic and subatomic level. Planck called units of energy quanta or part of a continuum. Quantum could be explained as “waiting for a machine to load pages is quantumly boring”. His theory establishes and concludes that a degree of energy is distributed throughout nature, and all forms of nature radiate energy. In addition, this energy is the same energy that is in the All of infinite space. The Quantum Theory also includes the influence of radiation emitted, transmitted, and absorbed from black objects. Planck had been studying the problem of “black body” radiation. A black body or any perfect absorber falls near the middle of the Electromagnetic span rather than the ultraviolet region. The ultraviolet wavelength regions are mainly produced in the space nearer the Sun and in regions of solar flares. Gravity is weaker than magnetism, electric, or nuclear forces. The only tangible evidence that the processes occur at all is the mottled path or matter…thought to be caused, in part, by quantum rising and falling of the Gravitational Field.

It is the theory upon which Albert Einstein based his Unified Field Theory or Spacetime Theory of Relativity. He used parts of the Quantum Theory and added time which goes on and on and on. Einstein’s photoelectric equation means that light is absorbed in separate individual quanta or steps as theorized by Planck. Einstein’s theory theorizes that all matter travels through electric or Electromagnetic Fields. He also suggested that Gravitation and Electromagnetic Energy may be related because a Gravitational Field interacts with matter, and Electromagnetic Fields also interact with matter. The Field’s equation describes Gravitational interaction of matter with space and time. Einstein theorized that energy absorption and emission is quantized or moves in steps or chunks. The only way the law could work was to realize that Electromagnetic Energy could be emitted in quanta or steps. Light is a wave or has wavelengths or Electromagnetic Waves which have particle-like frequencies. Gravitation is the attraction that masses of matter have for each other – the greater the mass, the greater the force. Electromagnetic Energy also is the attraction or glue that holds everything together; photons, neutrons, and electrons – all forces of nature.

Einstein’s theory of relativity and quantum theory together explain the nature and behavior of all matter and energy. He called it the Unified Field Theory. This is explained in my treatise, Chapter 5.  Superstring Theory and M-theory are proposals to fill Einstein’s theory. Superstring Theory is still under development and explains the entire Universe is made of strings. These strings sway back and forth and electrons sway some other way. There is a new institute at Columbia University called ISCAP or Institute for Strings, Cosmology, and Astroparticle Physics. My blogs of 10/16/15 and 11/14/15 go into more detail. To enhance this theory, the new James Webb Telescope was to succeed, in 2018, the Hubble Space Telescope,  but the new telescope has not been launched yet.

Due to gravity, time changes faster or slower in other parts of the Universe(s) compared to Earth’s time. It was found that astronauts age slower than people on Earth. Matter bends the fabric of space and time. The distortion of the Spacetime continuum even affects the behavior of light. Language is constantly being revised for space, and it is revised frequently in these modern times, in order to keep up with the fast moving pace of scientific research and high technologies. For instance, Einstein, with the help of mathematician Minkowski, formulated a newly  structured linguistic system that uses a language of Spacetime. This was explained in my treatise, Chapter 3. 

blk holes colllide Mass bends space. Waves squeeze and stretch anything in their path as they pass by…Gravitational Waves are invisible fast moving ripples in Spacetime (with the exception if they are near a newly exploding black hole or neutron star as explained in a previous blog). A former blog dated 3/9/19 explains how Gravitational Waves can be seen when black holes or other event explode or implode bringing light to the situation.

To be continued next month in “The Matter of the Black Hole”.



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  1. Anirudh Kumar Satsangi says:

    Gravitational Waves can not be seen. It may be detected only.

  2. Fay Kapec says:

    thank you

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