The Superstring Theory has been difficult to describe microscopically because of Gravity. This theory has emerged as the most promising candidate for a microscopic theory of Gravity because it attempts to provide a complete “unified” and consistent description of the fundamental structure of the Universe. For this reason, it is sometimes referred to as a “Theory of Everything”.
As such, the theory has the potential to realize Einstein’s dream of a single, all encompassing theory of the Universe called Unified Field Theory. The string theory also includes wormholes into other Universes. The theory reconciles the differences between quantum mechanics, which explains the world of atoms and other particles, and general relativity which explains motions and forces in the world of objects large enough to be seen without the assistance of special equipment.
The Superstring Theory is a framework in physics which states everything in the Universe is made of extremely tiny elastic strings. These strings are described as producing different types of particles by vibrating in different ways which can be thought of as a process that is similar to a guitar string vibrating in different ways to produce different musical notes.
A string can do something aside from moving. . . it can sway back and forth in different ways if it can be seen as an Electron. However, if it sways in some other way, it can be seen as a Photon, or a Quark, or so on and so on. So, if the Superstring Theory is correct, the entire Universe is made of strings. It should be stated that, to date, there is no experimental evidence that the Superstring Theory itself is the correct description of nature. This is mostly due to the fact that the theory is still under development.
For this reason, the Superstring Theory is not likely to be confirmed as accurately describing the Universe any time soon. However, the theory is still a mathematically-consistent description of a possible Universe even if it is not the one we live in. This allows us to analyze ideas about what is possible in a mathematically-consistent Universe and draw on results for insights about Earth’s Universe.
In the previous post, ELEMENTARY particles were explained. This post shall continue with the COMPOSITE particles which are Hadrons (and Leptons) that consist of Mesons and Baryons, Atomic Nuclei (which consist of Protons and Neutrons and are in turn made of Quarks), Atoms (which are the smallest neutral particles into which matter can be divided by chemical reaction), and Molecules.
Hadrons can be found in the nucleus of an Atom, and there are other varieties of Hadrons called Mesons and Baryons, all of which can be spun out into long, string-like objects and twirled around like glow sticks. Some Hadrons are closed loops like a rubber band and others are open strings like untied shoelaces.
The string properties of Hadrons have been well-confirmed by experiments. Superstring Theory predicts that other particles like Photons, which make up light, and Electrons, which orbit around the Atom’s nucleus, are also strings. These strings are thought to be strong enough to suspend trillions of tons of weight and yet also be extremely small . . . so small that the tiny Proton inside the nucleus of an Atom would seem as big as the state of New Jersey in comparison. Because of the difficulty involved with detecting objects this small, given our current technology, scientists would need a particle accelerator the size of our galaxy to test these predictions.
All objects from everyday life that a person can bump into, touch, or squeeze are composed of Atoms. Science indicates that each human cell consists of the exact universal elements of an Atom. A single Atom is made of the major particles of Protons. Neutrons, and Electrons, in addition to other smaller particles and possible other particles to be discovered in the future. The charge of Protons is positive energy and has a mass 1,836 times that of an Electron, and with the Neutron, forms nearly the entire mass of the Atom. Neutrons do not have a charge and are neutral. The only way Electrons and Protons balance in the Atom is that there are as many Electrons as Protons. The Electron, with their negative charge, rotate around the larger nucleus of Protons, and Neutrons (or central part of the Atom) at a great speed in the same way as Earth and other planets revolve around the Sun. Each Atom is a mini planetary system. Protons and Neutrons have particles which are called Quarks, mentioned later.
Atoms are explained more fully in Chapter 5 “The Larger Spiritual Order & Universal Scheme of Things-Simplified“
The Atom was discovered and made known somewhere between 150 AD and 1400 AD. Electrons were discovered around 1891. Protons were discovered in 1911, and Neutrons, with no charge, were discovered in 1921. The Neutron’s mass is slightly greater than that of a Proton. Quarks were discovered in 1968 . The existence of Gluons were suggested in the 1960s, and direct evidence of their existence was in 1979. These dates are shown to detail the progression of discovery of the particles.
Other COMPOSITE particles are Molecules, and they are the smallest physical unit of an element or compound and are a composite of two or more Atoms. Molecules are either composite Fermions (which are Baryons) or Composite Bosons (which are Mesons). Composite particles are composed of Quarks or Antiquarks tightly bound by color force which is held together by Gluons. A “sea” of virtual Quark/Antiquark pairs is also present in each Hadron.
Ordinary Baryons or Composite Fermions contain three each of an outer ring of Quarks or three each of an outer ring of Antiquarks, Nucleons are the Fermionic constituents of normal atomic nuclei, Protons and Neutrons are composed of Quarks. Some smaller and/or shortlived particles have also been observed.
Fermions obey Fermi-Dirac statistics and Bosons obey Boson-Einstein statistics. They can be ELEMENTARY or COMPOSITE particles. Particles with integer spin are Bosons; particles with 1/2 integer spin are Fermions.
Ordinary Mesons are made up of the outer ring of Quarks and the outer ring of Antiquarks and are not ELEMENTARY particles. Mesons mediate the residual strong force between Nucleons. Some exotic Mesons have been reported but not confirmed.
CONDENSED MATTER in physics are remarkably similar to those of high energy particles. As a result, much of the theory of particle physics applies to CONDENSED MATTER physics as well, In particular. . . there are a selection of field excitations called Quasi-particles that can be created and explored; such as, Phonones, Excitons, Plasmons, Polaritons, P:olarons, and Magnons.
Recently, a new institute at Columbia University called ISCAP (Institute for Strings, Cosmology, and Astroparticle Physics) dedicated to understanding the interfacts of Superstring Theory and cosmology was created. A primary focus of this institute is the search for subtle signatures of string theory that may be imprinted in the previous cosmological data that shall be collected through a variety of experiments over the next decade.
We may also be looking forward to NASA’s implementation of the James Webb Telescope that shall be the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope. The James Webb Space Telescope may be scheduled for launch in 2018. The telescope is named for James Webb who was the former NASA Chief from 1961 to 1968 during the Apollo Moon Program. The telescope is expected to be more powerful than the Hubble Space Telescope.
Have a blessed and happy Thanksgiving Holiday. The December post shall be about the “Yule”.