THE CASE OF THE UNKNOWN THERMODYNAMICS OF THE BLACK HOLE

 

Laws-of-thermodynamics-Study-Material

Space has always been taken for granted by Mankind thinking it is “emptiness” after all…a backdrop to keep everything else. Time also ticks on. But if physicists have learned anything, it is that space and time form a system of such staggering twists and turns that it may defy the most dedicated efforts to understand.

Albert Einstein saw what was coming in November 1916. A year earlier he had formulated his Unifield Field Theory or Spacetime Theory of Relativity. He theorized that gravity is not a force that widely spreads by itself through space but a feature of Spacetime itself. When a ball is thrown high into the air, it arcs back to the ground because Earth distorts the Spacetime around it so that the paths of the ball and the ground interact again. A friend of the author of this blog who lived in the area of Einstein’s home saw him throw a boomerang into the air. Was this another way for him to experiment? He also contemplated merging general relativity with his other brainchild…the Nascent Theory of Quantum Mechanics which deals with light diffraction to make an image 3 dimensional. It occurs when a wave meets an obstacle. The wave bends when meeting the obstacle. This theory has since become extinct.

As predicted by Einstein in 1916, a massive object-like Earth distorts Spacetime surrounding it. It is like a bowling ball that is dropped on a trampoline. The larger the objects, the more that Spacetime is distorted by that object. If a marble were circling around the bowling ball on the trampoline, the Gravitational Waves are rippled in Spacetime that travel outward from the source.

Einstein did not complete his Unified Field Theory before leaving this Earth. Even today, there are almost as many contending ideas for a Quantum Theory of gravity as scientists working on the idea. As the center of the idea is approached, a mathematical dead end arises…theorists cannot form a systematic path to a conclusive end because its time line ends there. The very Spacetime that would define the location of the uniqueness of the central gravity of the black hole ceases to exist. It is hoped that Quantum Theory could focus a microscope on that point and track what becomes of the material that falls in the hole (which could just keep going through) but it must have a proven formula.

A very similar difficulty occurred in the late 1800s when the mathematics of a “black body” was contemplated. The black body was thought of as a hole full of electromagnetic radiation. Maxwell’s theory of electromagnetism predicted that such an object would absorb all the radiation that it impacts upon, and it could never come to be in balance with surrounding matter..it would absorb an infinite amount of heat from a reservoir maintained at a fixed temperature. In thermal terms, it would effectively have a temperature of absolute zero (discussed earlier in Part 1). This conclusion contradicted observations of real-life black bodies such as an oven. Following up on work by Planck, Einstein showed that a black body can reach a thermal balance. Even theories that set out to preserve a conventional idea of Spacetime, end up concluding that something is hidden behind the front of this featureless black hole and does hold a meaningful reality. Other scientists preceding and contributing to Einstein’s work are: Faraday, Helmholtz, and Maxwell mentioned above. In addition, Heinrich Hertz’s discovery of radio waves confirmed the theories of these three scientists (mentioned in the treatise I authored). . .”The Larger Spiritual Order & Universal Scheme of Things-Simplified”

TED JACOBSEN Even in a vacuum, with no particles around, the  electromagnetic and other fields are internally entangled. Theodore (Ted) Jacobson, a theoretical physicist at the University of Maryland, is known for his work on the connection between gravity and thermodynamics. He proved that Einstein’s equations of describing gravity in his Field Theory can be derived from thermodynamic consideration. In 1995, he argued that entanglement provides a link between the presence of matter and the geometry of Spacetime…which is gravity; that is, stiffer or a more rigid force in Spacetime. Dr. Jacobson is currently researching dark energy and cosmic explanation. He wrote “Thermodynamics of Spacetime: The Einstein Equation of State”.  

Scientists shall continue work on a black hole theory and the dynamic solution of the merging of thermodynamics which is the relationship of all forms of energy. Understanding the Universe in order to truly understand the force of Spirit within it is a final goal.

For the US readers, please enjoy the Thanksgiving Holiday. Do not eat too much turkey…remember this meat makes a person sleepy.TURKEY

SPACETIME-EINSTEIN’S WATERLOO

EINSTEIN SPACETIME

EINSTEIN’S THEORY OF GENERAL RELATIVITY

EINSTEIN’S SPACETIME

Spacetime is any mathematical model that fuses 3 dimensions of space and the 4 dimensions of time into a single dimensional continuum. A continuum is a continuous sequence in which adjacent elements are not clearly different from each other although the extremes are quite unmistakable. All the Universal fundamental forces and elementary particles are a pair of physical and virtual (not clearly defined) fields which combine into one physical field. Space requires time…both are interdependent. To go from A to B, a particle, or a quantum field that rises and falls, must experience time. Space is never empty. There is always quantum rising and falling that need to experience time.  Spacetime are two sides of the same coin like the Electromagnetic Field where both forces, positive and negative, give rise to each other and are an unchanging woven property of the Universe. Now and the future are all energy and part of Spacetime as represented by the above cone.

Max Planck formulated his Quantum Theory in 1900. Quantum is Latin, and it means “amount” In modern sciences, it means the smallest unit of any property such as energy or matter on an atomic and subatomic level. Planck called units of energy quanta or part of a continuum. Quantum could be explained as “waiting for a machine to load pages is quantumly boring”. His theory establishes and concludes that a degree of energy is distributed throughout nature, and all forms of nature radiate energy. In addition, this energy is the same energy that is in the All of infinite space. The Quantum Theory also includes the influence of radiation emitted, transmitted, and absorbed from black objects. Planck had been studying the problem of “black body” radiation. A black body or any perfect absorber falls near the middle of the Electromagnetic span rather than the ultraviolet region. The ultraviolet wavelength regions are mainly produced in the space nearer the Sun and in regions of solar flares. Gravity is weaker than magnetism, electric, or nuclear forces. The only tangible evidence that the processes occur at all is the mottled path or matter…thought to be caused, in part, by quantum rising and falling of the Gravitational Field.

It is the theory upon which Albert Einstein based his Unified Field Theory or Spacetime Theory of Relativity. He used parts of the Quantum Theory and added time which goes on and on and on. Einstein’s photoelectric equation means that light is absorbed in separate individual quanta or steps as theorized by Planck. Einstein’s theory theorizes that all matter travels through electric or Electromagnetic Fields. He also suggested that Gravitation and Electromagnetic Energy may be related because a Gravitational Field interacts with matter, and Electromagnetic Fields also interact with matter. The Field’s equation describes Gravitational interaction of matter with space and time. Einstein theorized that energy absorption and emission is quantized or moves in steps or chunks. The only way the law could work was to realize that Electromagnetic Energy could be emitted in quanta or steps. Light is a wave or has wavelengths or Electromagnetic Waves which have particle-like frequencies. Gravitation is the attraction that masses of matter have for each other – the greater the mass, the greater the force. Electromagnetic Energy also is the attraction or glue that holds everything together; photons, neutrons, and electrons – all forces of nature.

Einstein’s theory of relativity and quantum theory together explain the nature and behavior of all matter and energy. He called it the Unified Field Theory. This is explained in my treatise https://www.amazon.com/dp/1496012755/, Chapter 5.  Superstring Theory and M-theory are proposals to fill Einstein’s theory. Superstring Theory is still under development and explains the entire Universe is made of strings. These strings sway back and forth and electrons sway some other way. There is a new institute at Columbia University called ISCAP or Institute for Strings, Cosmology, and Astroparticle Physics. My blogs of 10/16/15 and 11/14/15 go into more detail. To enhance this theory, the new James Webb Telescope was to succeed, in 2018, the Hubble Space Telescope,  but the new telescope has not been launched yet.

Due to gravity, time changes faster or slower in other parts of the Universe(s) compared to Earth’s time. It was found that astronauts age slower than people on Earth. Matter bends the fabric of space and time. The distortion of the Spacetime continuum even affects the behavior of light. Language is constantly being revised for space, and it is revised frequently in these modern times, in order to keep up with the fast moving pace of scientific research and high technologies. For instance, Einstein, with the help of mathematician Minkowski, formulated a newly  structured linguistic system that uses a language of Spacetime. This was explained in my treatise https://www.amazon.com/dp/1496012755/, Chapter 3. 

blk holes colllide Mass bends space. Waves squeeze and stretch anything in their path as they pass by…Gravitational Waves are invisible fast moving ripples in Spacetime (with the exception if they are near a newly exploding black hole or neutron star as explained in a previous blog). A former blog dated 3/9/19 explains how Gravitational Waves can be seen when black holes or other event explode or implode bringing light to the situation.

To be continued next month in “The Matter of the Black Hole”.

 

THE BIBLE VS SPIRITUALITY

Religion is by Man; Spirituality is by God

Jesus the Christ demonstrated the resurrection of Spiritual humans at the time he was crucified to show that life is eternal and Earth is only a “part”of life. He wanted people to idealize his words and not to idolize his body.

The Christian religion had no history in the form of a book; therefore, one needed to be formed. The history of mankind was to be a part of this book; therefore, it was to be decided that the life that was formed by the Jews was to be part of this book as the Old Testament. The life of Jesus was to be the New Testament, and the two testaments were named the Bible which means “book”.

The name of Jesus the Christ gave the Christian church its name. There was a pagan group that was losing its following because of the words of Jesus. So as not to lose this following, they changed their name to Catholic meaning universal. Jesus was born…he lived…he taught the Spiritual aspects of a human life. He showed how Spirit lived within each person by allowing  his Spirit to be resurrected to heaven, and then his Spirit came back to Earth and spoke to his apostles at Galilee. After this, according to his Apostle Luke, Jesus again rose to heaven where he has permanently  resided in the highest plane of heaven forever. One may call it “Seventh Heaven”.

440px-Vyasa

Vyasa is a legendary Indian sage who lived in 1500 BC and wrote Hindi poetry…especially the Mahabharata

It is known the Hebrew tribes had not kept written records of their past nomadic lifestyle. The Aryans did keep records, however, and these stories were later called the Vedas written on clay tablets. The Vedas were formed before the Bible was assembled and translated by St. Jerome in 400 AD more or less. The four Vedas were written in Sanskrit about 500 BC. Printed editions that survive today are the version printed in the 16th Century that were compiled by Vyasa, a Hindu,  pictured above. It is about the journeys of the Proto-Indo-Euro people who entered  India 1500 BC from Iran (some people suggest they were Atlantians). The Proto-Indo-Euro language was the forerunner of all languages as mentioned in the treatise. Indo-Iranians are the original Aryans. A small group is still located and living in Iran and also elsewhere. There were sacred texts from which the Veda religion become known. The knowledge was adopted by Indo-Aryans and influenced the rise of Hinduism in 400 BC. As an aside, India at one time was an island that drifted towards Asia after it ripped off of Madagascar 54 million years ago according to scientists.

The Old Testament of the Bible was compiled between 1400 BC and 400 BC. The New Testament was written between 4 AD to 95 AD. The Old Testament was finally written in mostly Hebrew, and the New Testament was written in Greek. These are the backgrounds of various people, lifestyles, and events over a period of 1500 years in various parts of Egypt, Palestine, Europe, and the Mid East. Jesus’ teachings occurred over a three-year period before he crossed over into the Reality of Being which is in the Universe. Before this, he visited India where he is known as Issa or Essa. Here he gained knowledge to assist him in the crucifixion. 

After the early church was established, people such as Matthew, Peter, and other disciples started writing historical records of Jesus’ life and ministry which became known as the Gospels. These were written after Jesus was crucified which was in the first Century AD (AD means after death of Jesus and BC means before Jesus the Christ). After decades of debate, a council determined which books should be included in the Bible. A few years later, all were published by St. Jerome in a single volume called the Vulgate.

The Hebrews named their book the Hebrew Bible, and some of the stories were taken from the Vedas. The Christian Bible is not a single book but a collection of 66 books written by more than 40 authors over more than 2,000 years.

One story stands out above all in the history of the Bible; that is, the story of the  the “Great Flood of Noah”. There is a parallel story to this flood written in the Vedas. This version dates the flood to have occurred in 4,000 BC. The mathematical system used for the age process is not known. Another version called the “Myth of Atrahasis” was written in 200 BC by a Sumerian/Akkadian or Semite. Atrahasis is a hero who built a boat and saved himself, his family, and animals from a flood  which was stated to be a punishment to mankind by the gods. It was not stated why there was a punishment. If only eight people were in Noah’s ark; namely, Noah, his wife, and three sons and their wives, it was a feat of all feats that they then started humanity all over again.                                                                                                                     gilgamesh King Giglamesh’s tablets can be found in a British museum, the Smithsonian, University of Pennsylvania, and other museums around the world.

noahs-ark-flood-creGILGAMESH Sample of clay tablet

 

 Giglamesh was the name of a king who lived around 1150 BC in Iraq. Iraq was once named Uruk. He wrote his story on clay tablets in poetic form. In a book written by Jorg Fassbinder of Munich, Germany, tablets were found in a tomb discovered when the waters of the ancient river Euphrates parted sometime following the death of King Gilgamesh.  Also, tablets of King Giglamesh were found in the mid 19th Century as part of a library of a king. A translation made in 1998 of “The Epic of Gilgamesh” can be found on the internet under that title. It was surprising that the unearthing of the dig found structures already described by King Gilgamesh. There was also a skeleton of a giant found here in 2013. King Giglamesh was known to be a huge person.

AYATOLAH

AYATOLAH ALI KHAMENEI

Present Ayatolah of Iran

Since Iran is very much in the news lately, the time evolved by the modern leaders of Iran may be of interest. The Persian Shah of Iran was backed by the United States and United Kingdom. He was overthrown and exiled in 1979 and was the last monarch and a friend of the United States. Elections wee held in 1980, and Ayatollah Ruhalla Khomeini of the Islamic Republican Party returned after being exiled in 1979. He died in 1989. Ayatolah Ali Khalmenei, above, now controls the empire and is reportedly worth $95 billion.

The life of Jesus the Christ was not the beginning of a religion called Christianity. Rather, it is the justification for Spiritualism or Spirituality. Jesus’ crucifixion and his life on Earth portrays the Spiritual aspects of humanity.

The Bible was not the forerunner of Spirituality. Spirituality began when humans were put on Earth or manifested. There was a reason for this manifestation because there had been a mishap that occurred when Spirits, traveling too close to the Earth’s atmosphere, became mixed up within the atmosphere. The positive and negative energies of the electrical force had to be balanced. They saw animals having coitus or sex and became too engrossed with the situation. Hence, these mixed up energies had to be corrected for the balancing of the Universe, and humans were manifested in Earth to accomplish this. The situation is more fully expressed in the treatise I authored and that was Spiritually given to a group through a high Spiritual source. The treatise can be found at               https://www.amazon.com/dp/1496012755/. 

After studying the Bible in my youth and not finding an understanding of the events in the Old Testament, I was led to finding the Spiritual truths of the Old Testament. I could not get my Mind into the Old Testament. That is when my Spiritual journey began.

Spirituality comes into reality when humans no longer tend to believe in fairy tales or have fear of blasphemy by stating the words are not God’s words that are in the Bible. This is what is often stated if a person questions the Bible. Enlightenment occurs when positive, absolute  wholesome thoughts are raised on a vibratory level and are held there at which time these thoughts bring about a peaceful situation to the person who is meditating. Meditating on one’s needs or thoughts bring about the truths of a person’s Spiritual heritage. Thoughts Create! Blessings to All!

https://www.naturalsciences.be/en/news/item5984/

https://www.learnreligion.com/when-was-the-bible-assembled-363293/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vyasa/

DEFINING HUMAN SEX TRAFFICKING & SLAVERY IN THE UNITED STATES

HUMAN TRAFFICKING

Colonists in early America were largely male who resorted to force to procure wives. American Indian women would be captured and traded, sold, or taken as wives. Poor European women were forced to migrate against their will to the United States to be wives. African-American slaves were often raped or forced to breed with other slaves. Many female slaves, or “fancy maids” were sold at auction into prostitution and were called “fancy trade”. The term “white slavery” was used for white Anglo-American women who were forced into prostitution. In the Early 20th Century, city after city no longer tolerated this prostitution and forced the closing of brothels.

The White Slave Traffic Act or Mann Act of 1910 made prostitution a felony if women crossed state borders for the purpose of immoral purposes or prostitution and sex trafficking. In regard to women trafficking from foreign countries for this purpose, the United States passed immigration acts to stop aliens from entering the United States. These acts included Emergency Quota Act and the Immigration Act of 1924 to prevent immigrants from Europe and Asia from entering the United States. Human sex trafficking was not an issue until the 1990s. The Advisory Committee on the Traffic of Women and Children had members from nine (9) countries. An implementation of a system of annual reports from these countries was developed. In 1929, there was a need to expand into the Near East (Asia Minor), the Middle East, and Asia.

In thirty-one (31) states, victims of sex trafficking may potentially be charged with crimes they were FORCED to commit. Each state has its own laws for dealing with sex trafficking within its own state. Prosecution may occur under specifically addressed sex trafficking, or under other laws such as laws prohibiting commercial sex services, including persecution for any acts of abuse or unlawful detention of the victims of sex offenses.

In 2000, Congress created the Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act with tougher punishments for sex trafficking. Former sex slaves can obtain a visa but must “prove they were enslaved by force, fraud, or coercion in their country. The visa allows former victims of sex trafficking to stay in the United States for three (3) years and then apply for a green card. Since then, there has been additional reasons added for either forced labor or sexual exploitation. The Bush Administration formed forty-two (42) Justice Department task forces and spent more than 150 million dollars to reduce sex trafficking. 

According to a University of Pennsylvania report, 100,000 to 300,000 American children at any given time may be at risk of exploitation due to factors such as drug use, homelessness, or other factors. The report continues to state this estimate does not reflect the actual number of cases in the United States, but the number of children at “risk” of commercial sexual exploitation. This number is based on 25-year data from the 1990s and is out of date. Can it be, in this day and age, the United States still has “white slavery” or “sex trafficking”?  The illegal immigration that is taking place on the United States border is making a mockery of all the United States acts that were put into place. This illegal immigration takes into account immigrants from other countries that are coming through the Southern borders.

RIBBON

PIMP controlled  trafficking is controlled by one pimp and controls the victim physically, psychologically, and/or emotionally. Initially, the grooming stage by the pimp seeks to make the victim dependent on them. Once the victim is comfortable in that stage, the pimp moves to the next seasoning stage. In this state, the pimp shall ask the victim to perform sexual acts for the pimp which the victim may do because they believe it is the only way to keep the trafficker’s affection. It can be difficult for the sex slave to leave the arrangement after this.

RIBBON

GANG TRAFFICKING has the sex victim controlled by more than one person. Gangs are turning to a sexual type of trafficking, because it is seen as safer and more lucrative than drug trafficking. Sometimes the victim is sold to other gangs. The victims may be tattooed to show their ownership. Numerous MS-13 (stands for Mara Salvatrucha) gang members have been indicted by Federal prosecutors on sex trafficking charges. These sex slaves are usually runaway children, or they were lured from middle schools, high schools, and public shelters. They were required to have sex with a minimum of ten (10) individuals per day.  President Trump has recently stated many of these gang members have been sent out of the United States rather than convict them and put in prisons in this country.

RIBBON

SURVIVAL SEX has the victim not controlled by a certain person, but the victim has to perform in order to obtain basic commodities to survive. They are victims of sex trafficking if they are below the age of consent and are legally unable to consent to the sexual acts. This framing of sex trafficking emerged during the period of second-wave feminism during the early 1960s, 70s, and 80s in the United States.

RIBBON

FAMILIAL TRAFFICKING is difficult to detect because it is often a family business, and it is a culture within a family that is passed down from generation to generation. Children who are trafficked by their family are abused as early as from birth. They grow up believing rape and violence are normal. Participants of a family that traffics their children include parents, grandparents, aunts, uncles, and cousins. They have all been raised in a similar way and may play a role in the trafficking. It is difficult for a child who grew up in this environment to recognize the victimization that is occurring and to be able to break the cycle. An outsider may be able to notice what is occurring and get outside help for the child.

RIBBON

HOTELS AND MOTELS are a major provider for domestic sex trafficking. They are mainly pimp-based, and the victims are mainly US citizens. To fight this problem, advocacy groups hand out pamphlets about sex trafficking to hotels and ask them to look out for women who appear fearful and show signs of being controlled by the men they are with. Or some groups give hotels bars of soap that have a sex trafficking hotline phone number to contact.

RIBBON

MASSAGE PARLORS that are illegal may have their massage workers work out of apartment complexes for many hours a day. The women may be lured into the United States under false pretenses. They are, therefore, in debt to their “owners” and are forced to earn enough to buy back their freedom. In addition, they may be forced to undergo plastic surgery and/or abortions. Individuals in society should be alert to report suspicious behavior, because the psychological and physical abuse occurs which can often leave a victim unable to escape on their own.

RIBBON

SPORTING EVENTS  host crowds, and when there are crowds, there is a demand for sex. Human trafficking which is known as modern day slavery is the second largest criminal activity in the world. Although not officially documented, the Super Bowl is the largest sex trafficking event in the world. See: Human trafficking and sports by Richard Lapchick, Contributing Writer, ESPN.com.

RIBBON

LATINO BROTHELS cater to Latino males and are a major vehicle for sex trafficking with the victims being mainly women and children from Latin America but also may come from US citizens of Latin descent. The brothels may be in informal underground businesses located in any part of the United States. These brothels move from time to time to other areas in order to not be detected, and the victims do not get to know the area too well.

RIBBON

NEVADA BROTHELS are legal in certain rural counties. Pimps can use these brothels to traffic children who are, in many cases, under age. The pimps take the bulk of their earnings. The brothel owner is nothing more than a slave owner. Nevada is the last state in the union that should stand against all forms of slavery.

RIBBON

Social Media has played an increasing role in sex trafficking, particularly Facebook and MocoSpace. Some social media providers create their own websites. Sex slaves captured by ISIS are known to surface at auctions in the United States.

People are asking for a change in the immigration laws to again stop the entrance to this country of sex and drug trafficking, because it appears these two go together. Spiritual awareness in the United States would then have a much better chance of growth although the growth of Spiritual Conscious Awareness is making a huge headway. Founders of this nation’s Constitution were Spiritual men, and the concepts and laws for this new country were founded on the principles of Spirituality.

The information and statistics expressed in this post are the other side of Spiritual…the negative forces as opposed to positive which are the dualities of human experience as expressed in “The Larger Spiritual Order & Universal Scheme of Things-Simplified”. This treatise is found with Amazon at https://www.amazon.com/dp/1496012755/

Contents from this post were taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sex_trafficking_in_the_United_States 

THE DETECTION OF THIS UNIVERSE’S GRAVITATIONAL WAVES

blk holes colllide When two black holes collide and

become one, Gravitational Waves shall spread outwards and black holes spin past each other creating light in the Universe

Gravitational Waves were detected on October 17, 2017, by the Lazer Interferometer-Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and the European Gravitational Observatory Detector (VIRGO). They are similar scientific observatories. Japan and India have similar observation sites. These waves are the ripples or wrinkles in space that were predicted by Einstein when neutron stars explode or black holes collide. The colliding black holes took place 130 million years ago in the constellation Hydra. It is the first time astronomers have matched Gravitational Waves with a visible source. Shown on the image above is the light coming from the collision which are the Gravitational Waves.

Einstein suggested that Gravitational Waves could be a natural outcome of his “general theory of relativity” which states that very massive objects distort the fabric of space and time. The objects spiraling towards each other should wrinkle space-time and send those distortions across the cosmos like ripples spreading across a pond at the speed of light. Many scientists accepted Einstein’s predictions; however, Einstein himself was not totally convinced. He sometimes published papers denying or contradicting his ideas due to the fact that his formulas did not seem to agree.

Einstein announced his theory of relativity in 1916 . It was later called ‘United Field Theory” . The theory was later interrupted by his death, and scientists have been working to complete it ever since as cited in “The Larger Spiritual Order & Universal Scheme of Things-Simplified”, Chapter 5, Wavelength to God. Gravitation is the attraction that matter has for each other. The greater the mass, the greater the distortion. The United Field Theory equation described gravitational interaction of matter with space and time. Einstein also theorized that ALL matter travels through electric or electromagnetic fields. He also suggested that Gravitational Waves and Electromagnetic Energy may be related because a gravitational field interacts with matter and electromagnetic fields also interact with matter.

After Einstein announced his theory of relativity, his mathematical college professor, Minkowski, developed a new way of thinking about space and time which helps to understand how the Universe(s) work. Minkowski announced at a public lecture “The news of space and time which I wish to lay before you have sprung from the soil of experimental physics, and therein lies their strength. They are radical. Henceforth, space by itself, and time by itself, are doomed to fade away into mere shadows, and only a kind of union of the two will preserve an independent reality”.

Space consists of 3 dimensions, and time is 1 dimensional. Space-time must, therefore, be a 4 dimensional and is a continuum. Scientists now routinely consider our world to be embedded in this 4 dimensional continuum, and all events, places, moments in history, actions, etc. are described in terms of their location in space and time. It does not evolve but simply exists.

Gravitational Waves are ripples in the fabric of space-time caused by some of the most violent and energetic processes in the Universe…like neutron stars exploding or black holes merging and exploding. Neutron stars are the most complex explosions. This activity is occurring in all the Universes and not only the Universe belonging to Earth. At all times, the Universes; however, are balanced. Gravitational Waves can penetrate regions of space that Electromagnetic Waves cannot. They can be observed when black holes collide and neutron stars explode in the distant Universe bringing light to the situation

Gravitational Waves disrupt space-time and Electromagnetic Waves do interact in a minor degree. Electromagnetic Waves interact heavily with matter and Gravitational Waves interact weakly with matter so they may interact together but only briefly. Gravitational Waves come from a very high energy source and are detectable by their extremely weak Electromagnetic Waves they send out.

In 1970, scientists, observing a pair of pulsars orbiting one another, indirectly detected Gravitational Waves for the first time (as Einstein’s thoughts predicted). Pulsars form when a massive star collapses and produce powerful beams of light. Pulsars are rotating neutron stars and have very strong magnetic fields and pulses of radiation. At the telescope in Puerto Rico, the team measured the orbits of the two pulsars and determined that the pulsars were moving closer together. For that to occur, the system must have been radiating energy in the form of Gravitational Waves. This prompted a Nobel Prize in physics. However, not until 2015, the LIGO team directly detected Gravitational Waves using a pair of ultra-sensitive detectors. The discovery ended a century of speculation and confirmed Einstein’s original prediction for his relativity theory.

The LIGO facility has two identical L-shaped detectors in Washington State and Louisiana. They employ lasers and mirrors to measure the tiny changes in space-time made by passing Gravitational Radiation. A laser bouncing back and forth between the mirrors keep track of how far apart they are to an almost impossible precise degree.

These observations give Mankind unexpected insight into the cosmos. Gravitational Waves are a new way of “seeing” what happens in space. Events can now be detected that would otherwise have little to no observable light..like black hole collisions. It shall allow scientists to detect events in space that would otherwise leave little to no observable light. Astronomers shall now be able to use Gravitational Waves with more traditional ways of seeing the Universe which shall assist in untangling mysteries about the dense, dead objects known as neutron stars. 

GRAVITATIONAL WAVES FROM NEUTRON STARS

GRAVITATIONAL WAVES FROM NEUTRON STARS

Gravitational Waves distort space-time. By the time these waves reach Earth, they are much smaller than the width of a proton which are particles in an atom’s nucleus described in “The Larger Spiritual Order & Universal Scheme of Things-Simplified”. Most instruments cannot measure these changes in length. Using the Swope and Magellan telescopes in Chile, astronomers recorded the neutron star explosions as it suddenly appeared in a bright spot in visible light and then faded. After about seven days, the spot was no longer detected in visible wavelengths.

It took some time for scientists to get the instruments together to be able to put the technology together. Now it is possible to detect the events, through the light produced by Gravitational Waves, that are taking place in the Universe, when black holes collide and neutron stars explode thereby giving off this observational light. A new science shall open up.

Neutron stars are dead in the sense that they are no longer fusing elements in their cores. So they do not shine like the Sun. A neutron star’s magnetic field can be more than a quadrillion times stronger than Earth’s, and its gravitational field can be a hundred billion times stronger. One would not want to get near to this occurrence!

Thanks to the Gravitational Waves acting as a kind of cosmic alert, astronomers were able to scrutinize the remains of the neutron stars and, therefore, assist in solving an age old debate about the origins of precious metals such as gold and silver and also other heavy metals. It has been thought that most of the Universe’s gold was crafted by the deaths of giant stars exploding, Now scientists have found that the merger of neutron stars ended in an explosion called a “kilonova” that spewed out a cloud of atomic nuclei and created the production of l6,000 Earth’s worth of heavy metals. It is suggested that most of these metals are actually created by neutron stars which have smashed years ago.

RIBBON