By nature, humans are curious about the Universe(s). Why are we here? From where did humans and the World come? Of what is the World made? Enormous progress has been made toward finding some of the answers. The Superstring Theory is the most recent attempt to answer part of the second question and possibly the third question. In the previous post of the newly confirmed planet Pluto, it was touched upon that the scientists who are primarily investigating and searching for the answers are Dr. Michio Kaku, a theoretical physicist at City College of New York, and Dr. Brian Greene of the Department of Physics at Columbia University. They hope to have an answer to the questions posed by Einstein’s unfinished Unified Field Theory which is mentioned in the treatise “The Larger Spiritual Order & Universal Scheme of Things-Simplified”.
There are four fundamental forces in the Universe (see image above): 1. Gravity, 2. Electromagnetism, 3. Weak Nuclear Forces, and 4. Strong Nuclear Forces. Each is the carrier of the Electromagnetic Force which is the Force that is so important to use in spiritual meditation and prayer. Graviton is the particle associated with Gravity; Electromagnetic Force with Electromagnetism, the Weak Force is transmitted by three particles called Bosons known as W+, W-, and Z (discovered in 1983,) and the Strong Force is carried by eight particles known as Gluons. “W” refers to ‘Weak’ and “Z” refers to the last particle that has ‘z’ ero electrical charge. A Photon is a particle of light which is the mediator of Electromagnetic Force. It is part of an Atom and larger than an Electron but only appears momentarily.
The entire Universe consists of a uniform “soup” of Elementary particles, Composite particles, Condensed matter, and a few minor others that have an explanation as follows in this post and continued in the next post:
ELEMENTARY PARTICLES are Quarks and Leptons (made up of Fermions), Bosons, Neutrinos (which have little charge and are known to move back and forth so to not have a definite mass), and hypothetical particles. Elementary particles are not composed of other particles; they are fundamental ‘objects’ of the Quantum Field Theory. Fermions and Bosons are the fundamental ‘classes’ of particles which include Quarks and Leptons. Leptons have an electron or electric charge. Charged Leptons are called Electron-like while the neutral Leptons are called “Neutrinos”. There is an image of a Neutrino in last month’s blog.
Interestingly, two scientists, Arthur McDonald and Takaaki Kajita, were recently awarded the 2015 Nobel Prize for proving that Neutrinos have a definite mass even though very small. Arthur McDonald and team worked in Canada and Takaaki Kajita and team worked out of Tokyo. They experimented in different parts of the World but came to similar conclusions. The conclusions are that Neutrinos are created by nuclear reaction of the sun and stars. They are also in the bellies of nuclear power plants as well as humans as explained in last month’s blog. The experiments were done in large underground tanks containing water, and the tanks were designed to prove Neutrinos have a mass.
Bosons, along with Fermions, are fundamental classes of ELEMENTARY PARTICLES. They may be either Elementary-like Photons and Gluons or Composite-like Mesons. Elementary Bosons are Photon, W Boson, Z Boson, Gluon, Higgs Boson, and Graviton. Graviton is unconfirmed at this time. There are other minor particles that may play into this scheme; such as, Neutralinos and Charginos,. etc.
Gluons are sticky stringy pieces and the open-string varieties end in particles called Quarks. Quarks form and split with Gluons according to complex mathematical rules which depend on two properties. For fun, these properties are referred to as ‘flavor’ and ‘color’, but they do not refer to flavor and color in the everyday sense of these words.
One example of this is the notion that the Earth’s Universe may have several extra dimensions beyond the three that humans have experienced. Mathematically, these extra dimensions are necessary to combine the theories of general relativity and quantum mechanics. The extra dimensions also assist in the explanation of how the incredibly tiny particles like Quarks could demonstrate their complex properties of ‘flavor’ and ‘color’. This paradox is resolved in Superstring Theory by placing the hidden machinery which gives rise to these properties in six extra dimensions. The full implications of these extra dimensions is not yet understood. Might this be the answer or explanation of the hidden spiritual planes in the Universe?
Gluons are the Elementary particles that “glue” Quarks together. Gluons possess a property called ‘color’ and are massless, travel at the speed of light, and are compared to positive and negative charges of red, blue, and yellow colors. Quarks change their ‘color’ as they emit and absorb Gluons, and the exchange of Gluons maintains proper Quark ‘color’ balance. Only colorless particles may exist in isolation; therefore, individual Gluons and individual Quarks cannot exist in nature. Only direct evidence of their existence can be detected. In 1979, compelling evidence was found when Quarks were shown to emit Gluons during studies of particle collisions at a high-energy physics laboratory in Hamburg, Germany.
The Superstring Theory shall be continued next month in Part II with Composite particles.
Enjoy the change of the color of the Fall leaves!!